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Source Market:Russia

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Source Market Russia
Reference Year 2011
Population 143.0 million
GDP one Year Development +6.5%
GDP per Capita 16,800 €
Travel Propensity total  %
Holiday Travel Propensity  %
No. of international Trips 21.1 million
Frequency of int. Trips 0.2 per year
Spending per int. Trip 844 €
Duration of int. Trips 13.1 days
Holiday share of int. Trips 79% of all trips
Main holiday reason 2011: NATURE  % of population
Main holiday reason 2011: CULTURE  % of population

Russia is a state in northern Eurasia. It is the largest country in the world, covering more than a ninth of the Earth's land area. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 9 time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, and North Korea.


Country Profile

Icon Globe.png Geography/Population

  • Land area: 17,098,242 km² (country comparison to the world: 1)
  • Population: 143.0 million inhabitants (country comparison to the world: 9); 8 inhabitants/km²; Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1%
  • Biggest Cities: Capital Moscow (10,523,000), St. Petersburg (4,575,000), Novosibirsk (1,397,000), Jekaterinburg (1,344,000), Nischni Nowgorod (1,284,000)
  • Urbanisation: 73% of the Russian population live in cities
  • Religions: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2%. Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
  • Languages: Russian (official), many minority languages
  • Age structure (Median age: 38.8 years):
0-14 years: 15.2%
15-64 years: 71.8%
65+ years: 13.0%
  • Population projection: The Russian population will decrease in the future (2025: 139.0 million inhabitants)

Source: CIA - The World Factbook 2012 [1], UN Population divison 2010 [2]

Icon Vote.png Politics

  • Government type: federation and semi-presidential republic
  • Chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 2012)
  • Head of government: Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 2012)
  • Administration: 46 oblasts, 21 republics, 4 autonomous okrugs, 9 krays, 2 federal cities and 1 autonomous oblast

Source: CIA - The World Factbook 2012 [1]

Icon Money.png Economy

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012* 2013* 2015*
GDP (PPP) in billion US$ 2,115.7 2,276.1 2,120.7 2,237.4 2,383.4 2,510.8 2,649.0 2,950.2
GDP development +11.7% +7.6% -6.8% +5.5% +6.5% +5.3% +5.5%
GDP per capita (PPP) in US$ 14,900 16,000 14,900 15,700 16,800 17,700 18,700 21,000
Inflation rate 9.0% 14.1% 11.7% 6.9% 8.4% 4.8% 6.4% 6.5%
Unemployment rate 6.1% 6.4% 8.4% 7.5% 6.5% 6.0% 6.0% 6.0%
*2012, 2013, 2015 data: estimates by IMF, April 2012
  • GDP-composition by sector: services: 58.6% industry: 36.9% agriculture: 4.5%
  • Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy. The economy is strongly dependent from the development of prices and demand on the international commodity market.
  • Import- and export: Most important partners are Germany, China, Netherlands (export), Italy, Ukraine
  • Currency: Russian ruble (RUB) - 1 ruble = 100 kopeks, 1 Euro = 40.0223 rubles (March 2011)
  • Income distribution: The Russian distibution of income is rather imbalanced (below-average, position 98 worldwide)
  • HDI (Human Development Index): Russia is a „High Human Development“ Country (2011: country comparison in the world: 66)
  • Media access: 29% of Russian households with Internet access; 137 phones per 100 inhabitants; ICT Development Index (IDI), worldwide benchmarking of communication infrastructure: Rank 47
  • OECD Better Life Index: The Russian Federation has made progress over the last decade in improving the quality of life of its citizens, despite lower than average scores in some topics on the Better Life Index. Click here to have a look at Russia's Better Life profile.

Source: IMF World Economic Outlook Database [3], CIA - The World Factbook 2012 [1], DZT Russland 2012 [4], UNDP Human Development Report 2011 [5], OECD Factbook (2011-2012) [6], ITU International Telecommunication Union [7]

Tourism Demand

Icon Plane.png International travel

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Number of international trips of the Russian 12.7 million 14.0 million 15.9 million 18.5 million 20.7 million 18.1 million 21.1 million
  • Holiday/business/VFR: 79% of the 21.1 million international trips in 2010 were holiday, 12% business, 9% VFR (visiting friends and relatives)
  • Long/short holidays: 93% of the 16.8 million private trips abroad in 2010 were "long" holiday trips (4+ nights), 7% were "short" holiday trips (1-3 nights)
  • Frequency of international travel: on average, every Russian (15+ years old) took 0.2 international trips in 2010
  • Regional source markets: 29% of international trips in 2010 originated from the region Moscow, 25% from North Russia, 18% from Siberia and the Asian part of Russia, 17% from South Russia and 11% from West Russia.
  • Destinations all international trips 2010:
1. Turkey (15%; 3.1 million)
2. Ukraine (12%; 2.6 million)
3. China/Tibet/Mongolia (11%; 2.3 million)
4. Egypt (7%; 1.5 million)
4. Germany (7%; 1.5 million)
  • Destinations international holiday trips 2010 ("long" and "short" holidays):
1. Turkey (17%; 2.9 million)
2. Ukraine (13%; 2.2 million)
3. Egypt (9%; 1.5 million)
4. China/Tibet/Mongolia (8%; 1.3 million)
  • Duration of international trips of the Russian 2010: 13.1 nights
International holiday trips: 12.8 nights
International VFR trips: 16.7 nights
International business trips: 11.4 nights
  • International travel spendings 2010: total 18.1 billion Euro - corresponding to 844 Euro per international trip and 65 Euro per night abroad. Note: including all costs of travel and transport at home and at the destination

Source: IPK International: World Travel Monitor 2010. In: DZT Marktinformation Russland 2012 [4]

Traffic links into the Baltic Sea Region

Icon Airport.png Air

At Russia’s Moscow International Airports (Sheremetyevo and Deomodedovo) airlines leave to many world destinations. International airports in Western Russia with connections into the Baltic Sea Region are Pulkolvo Saint Petersburg Airport and Murmansk Airport. Please look up the airport links for their current connections into the BSR:

Icon Ferry.png Sea

There are several ferry-connections from Russia into the Baltic Sea Region, e.g. to Germany, Sweden, Finland and Poland. A current overview of the ferry lines can be found here.

Icon Rail.png Rail

Russian Railways offers passenger services to several countries in the Baltic Sea Region. From Moscow, there are train connections to Germany (Berlin), the Netherlands (Amsterdam), Finland (Helsinki) and Poland (e.g. Warsaw). In addition, there are high-speed trains beetween Saint-Petersburg and Helsinki. For further information see Russian Railways or long distance railway services.

Icon Road.png Road

By car, you can leave Russia towards one of the Baltic states, Finland or Sweden. The infrastructure on the road is good, but sometimes there are longer queues at some border crossing points.

Generally, it is better to avoid traveling through Ukraine and Belarus as it is the main route for trucks and second-hand car importers. Besides, you will have to deal with more border regulations on the way. However, if you decide to go this way, keep E30 motorway which starts in Moscow, passes through Smolensk and then crosses Minsk and Brest (Belarus).

The best is to leave Russia through the border with Latvia, Estonia or Finland, as all of them belong to same economic area (EU), which means less hassle. The shortest route from Russia to Poland avoiding Belarus (and thus transit visa hassle) is leaving Russia near Pskov and travel through Riga (Latvia) and Kaunas (Lithuania). If you are traveling to Finland, Nujimaa/Bruschnishnaya control point is usually quite fast, while Valimaa/Torfjanak usually has longer queues. The border between Russia and Latvia is usually not too busy, but it depends: sometimes you can get through the border in 20 minutes, sometimes you might have to wait 2 hours.

For further information on roads in Russia see here.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 CIA - The World Factbook, August 2012 [1]
  2. UN Population division 2010 (Medium variant) [2]
  3. IMF (International Monetary Fund): World Economic Outlook Database, April 2012 [3]
  4. 4.0 4.1 Deutsche Zentrale für Tourismus: Marktinformationen Russland 2012 [4]
  5. UNDP Human Development Report 2011 [5]
  6. OECD Factbook (2011-2012) Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics [6]
  7. ITU International Telecommunication Union, Measuring the Information Society 2011[7]